Journal of National Fisheries University

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Recently overbrowsing by fish in cultivation of the wakame Undaria pinnatifida has become problematic and the black scraper Thamnaconus modestus is suspected of the feeding damage for the cultured U. pinnatifida as well as a few herbivorous fishes and the Japanese black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii, but aspects on feeding behavior and bite scars of the species are extremely limited. We examined characteristics of bite scars left on thalli of the cultured U. pinnatifida by feedng of T. modestus in a tank experiment. The species showed active feeding behavor of the cultured U. pinnatifida and conspicuously consumed juveniles rather than adults. Bite marks left on blades were categorized into three shapes of arc, ellipse and serration and particularly the ellipse-shaped bite mark is characteristic of T. modestus, unknouwn for other overbrowsing fishes. Additionally cut surfaces of those bite marks were edged with irregular gentle concaves. The shape of bite marks on the thalli was thought to be useful for identifying the fish species that caused the feeding damage of the cultured U. pinnatifida.
PP. 115 - 123
Two types of stratified [two-layer; inner layer (L0) and outer layer (L1)] granules were observed in the neutrophils (neutrophil granule, NG: type 1, NG1a; type 2, NG2) of larva (ammocoetes) of far eastern brook lamprey Lethenteron reissneri collected in a tributary of the Koyagawa River in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The NG1a consisted of chromophobic L0 and chromatophilic L1. On the other hand, the NG2 had chromatophilic L0 and chromophobic L1. The L1 of NG1a and L0 of NG2 showed a variety of colors [eosinophilic or basophilic (orthomethylenophilic or metaazurophilic)] depending on the staining conditions. These layers were positive for alkaline phosphatase, α-naphtyl acetate esterase and Sudan black B. Some enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, ꞵ-glucuronidase, and naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase were detected in the L0 of NG2. The neutrophils lacked α-naphtyl butyrate esterase and peroxidase.
PP. 125 - 148
Two types of stratified granules (two-layer) were observed in the eosinophils (eosinophil granule. EG: type 1, EG1; type 2, EG2) of larva (ammocoetes) of far eastern brook lamprey Lethenteron reissneri collected in a tributary of the Koyagawa River in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The EG1 consisted of inner eosinophilic layer (L0) and chromophobic outer layer (L1). Dark (low light transmittance) inclusion structure (IS), which was various size and morphology (round, oval, rod, or spindle), was observed in the L0 of many EG1 (only one IS in a EG1). The IS was found in the cytochemical staining preparation, but not in the preparation stained with May-Grunwald (MG), Giemsa and MG•Giemsa. Therefore, recognition of IS was affected with the eosin-stained L0 of EG1. The EG1 classified into three subtypes (EG1a, EG1b and EG1c) based on the optical artificial image (OAI) of IS in L0. The EG1a had no OAI (probably no IS). The OAI of both EG1b and EG1c were larger than IS. The former was round or oval chromophobic area (OAI-1), and latter was expanded and rugged (threedimensional) image (OAI-2; chromophobic; round, oval, or rod). The EG1a may be prototype of EG1. The EG1 showed no positive reaction by various cytochemical stains. The EG2 had chromophobic inner layer (L0) and basophilic (orthomethylenophilic) outer layer (L1). Some enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, ꞵ-glucuronidase, α-naphtyl acetate esterase, naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase) were detected in L0 of EG2. The eosinophils lacked α-naphtyl butyrate esterase and peroxidase.
PP. 149 - 163
Mentaiko, a seasoned cod roe, is one of the main food products in produced from the ovary of Walleye Pollock in Japan. Walleye Pollock roe is predominantly used in the preparation of Mentaiko, with limited other applications. This study showed the processing procedure for an edible film from the Walleye Pollock roe. A few conditions were identified wherein the film could be prepared during processing of the roe. In the first step, water-soluble proteins were extracted from roe samples employing a pH 12.0 phosphate buffer. The pH of this mixture was subsequently adjusted to pH 6.0, mixed with 1.0% transglutaminase and heated at 70℃ for 20 min. Finally, the product was dried in silicon cases suitable for the preparation of edible films. Evaluation of the dried film indicated some improvement in terms of flexibility compared to similarly produced films. During the evaluation of various film-forming solutions, an increase in the amount of surface hydrophobic groups and/or surface sulfhydryl groups was associated with an increased film production. We showed that the edible film can be produced from the proteins of Walleye Pollock roe.
Yaguchi Shigenori Fujinaka Megumi Yoshida Haruka Yamazaki Ryoutarou Ohkubo Makoto Maeda Toshimichi
PP. 165 - 173
This study examines the roll of Ube municipality to build collaboration with sales businesses in local fishery sector. Ube city adopted “Evidence-Based Policy Making” to make the next fisheries promotion plan. They conducted questionnaire survey to the local fishery sector and customers and made the first draft of the promotion plan according to the result. Members of the committee were also the local fishermen, distributers and representative from the tourist industry and they discussed and understood the present situation and problem of the community and became awareness of the necessity of their new action. Thus they could take the first step to build a cooperative business relationship among local fishery sector.
PP. 175 - 184
In the United States, the Korean War (1950–1953) has long been known as the “forgotten war.” However, the war was a watershed for racial minorities in the U.S. military. The U.S. racial policy was changed drastically after U.S. president Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 9981 in 1948. This study analyzes the military service of Japanese American Nisei (the second generation) who served in the Korean War. The goal of this study is to clarify the transitions of social status of Nisei before and after their service. The paper highlights the Nisei’s motivation to serve in the military, using semi-structured interviews of Californian veterans that I conducted from 2008 to 2019. Most were Nisei and had U.S. citizenship as their birthright. However, their citizen status was insecure even in the fifties, and racial discrimination prevented them from obtaining adequate employment or college education. The Korean War GI Bill benefits definitely supported them after they returned from the battlefield. In this sense, military service in the Korean War became a pathway to success in the post-internment era for Nisei, yet it also revealed their unstable social status. This paper categorizes their motivations to serve from three elements : socioeconomic reasons, honor and dignity as U.S. soldiers, and their loyalty and patriotism for the United States. The multiple voices of my interviewees shows that while their difficult situations were certainly critical elements among their motivations for service, their various experiences still should not be considered as simply monolithic.
PP. 185 - 198