Academic Archives of Yamaguchi Prefectural University
The aim of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the Competency Scale in Practice of Childhood Care for children with Disabilities (CSPCD). Moreover, this study examines the relationship between CPSCD and careers of nursery teachers. The results exhibited that CSPCD consisted of five sub-scales interest in childcare for children with disabilities necessary assessments in childcare for children with disabilities; the actual involvement in childcare for children with disabilities; collaboration with parents and other organizations in childcare for children with disabilities, and development of expertise in childcare. Our study finds that there is sufficient reliability and validity in this regard due to significant correlation between the score of interest in childcare for children with disabilities in CSPCD and the required number of years of experience for a childcare institution. Additionally, it was clarified that the total score of CSPCD and the scores of each sub-scale differed significantly depending on the teachers’ individual experiences in assisting children with disabilities.
PP. 20 - 31
More than 30 years have passed since the Social Worker and Care Worker Act was enacted in 1987, which positioned social welfare officers as nationally qualified social workers, and as of the end of December 2022, there were 271,208 registered social workers.
As stipulated in Article 2 of the Social Worker and Care Worker Act, social workers are professionals who, with their specialized knowledge and skills, provide "consultation" to persons eligible for assistance, "advice and guidance,"
"liaison and coordination" with welfare service providers and other professionals and persons concerned, and "other assistance.”
In this study, five social workers from the Council of Social Welfare (in charge of projects to support the selfreliance of the needy) and the Community Comprehensive Support Center were surveyed for four weeks from February 7 to March 4, 2022, to investigate their work dynamics.
The survey results indicate that social workers perform their professional duties as stipulated in the Act according to the functions and roles of their agencies. However, "outreach" and "community and organizational outreach," which are the goals of the "Consultation Assistance" section of the research presentations at the annual conference of the Japan Society of Social Workers, are being practiced but account for only a small percentage of the total work.We believe that further collaboration and information sharing with related organizations is needed to discover those in need of assistance. As for the other objective of "collaboration with various professions", it became clear that the respondents collaborated with health, medical, welfare-related organizations, government administrators, and welfare commissioners, as well as with probation officers and lawyers, etc., as required for the persons are assisted by each organization.
Based on the above, we believe that by accumulating practices related to "outreach" and “community and organizational outreach", social workers will be able to fulfill the roles of responding to cross-system issues and supporting activities of local residents, as it was anticipated by the Special Committee for Securing Welfare Human Resources of the Welfare Subcommittee, Social Security Council of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to work toward the realization of a "community-based society.”
PP. 32 - 42
The follow is our three conclusions. First, even though the Prevention Law for Hansen disease at 1907 and 1931 have been regarded as a symbol of infringement of patient’s human rights, these Laws were not specified the term “segregation”, which made possible to survive patients with Hansen disease in Okinawa Island. These Laws had been included some relief measures. Second, we consider comparative research on Okinawan medical history of three infectious disease: Hansen disease, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.
The following is common ground of three diseases, which came to the end after the Okinawan reversion at 1972, owing to “American medical benefits”. These diseases has each own medical conditions and social interests before Okinawan war. In general, Okinawan medical institution was very scarce at that time. In Okinawa society, people with Hansen disease and Tuberculosis were possible to be recuperation at home, because sanatorium for them had not been constructed. For only the people with Hansen disease, however, it was possible to recuperate at home until disclosing infection. From the viewpoint of social stigma, the people with Hansen disease was inferior to the people with Tuberculosis. The people who disclosed infection with Hansen disease had to usually run away from home, then lived at refugee’s camp in Okinawa.
On other hand, socio-economical risk was immanent in Tuberculosis and Malaria, because their infection would decreased to the population of industrial workers. As especially toropical Malaria had high risk to die, many cultivate villages were broken at Iriomote Island. As Malaria prevented from exploitation and economy in Yaeyama, the Island people decided to introduce into the compulsory Medical policy for Malaria. This policy derived from medical practice in Taiwan. Though the Ya-eyama medical institution for Malaria was nearly finished, it was not possible to exterminate before Okinawan War. It was been increased infection with Tuberculosis at rural area in Okinawa Island. To the contrary, because of the number of inpatients with Tuberculosis had been amounted to ten thousand degree, it was not possible to construct the medical policy before Okinawan War. Compare Hansen disease with Tuberculosis and Malaria, the number of inpatients with Hansen disease was low score(about 1000 inpatients ), and the social-economical risk was small. The construction of sanatorium for inpatients with Hansen disease was preceded to Tuberculosis. Third, in this research, our hypothesis schema《state - region – patient and home》was direct from the history of constructing processes of institution for public health. The political power of state is not direct to patient, but is mediate by region. It is important to construct the managing system of relationship between region and patient, because of the medical policy for infection is not functional without voluntarily corporation from regional institution and patient.
PP. 44 - 56